Atoms

This hypothesis is based on the science of atomic structure. Everything that we know of, animate and inanimate, including ourselves, our universe, earth, the water, soil, metal, air, plants and food we eat are made from atoms. DNA (all life) comes from atoms (see page 13 and footnotes 26 & 27). Atoms are the cornerstone of the universe. Atoms were theorized to exist by ancient Greece in the 5th Century B.C. by philosophers Leucippus and Democritus.8 Their hypothesis was more philosophizing than experimenting. Their idea was that when matter could no longer be divided into smaller pieces, accurately explained the idea of an atom. They named it atomos, meaning uncuttable or indivisible. Later the leading scientist and philosopher Aristotle rejected the hypothesis.9 Other scientists continued studying the hypothesis, but with little progress. In 1808 the atomic hypothesis advanced greatly with John Dalton.10 Atoms are composed of between 150-200 subatomic particles.11 The three (3) basic ones are electrons, protons, and neutrons. Subatomic particles within an atom are confined and held together by a strong nuclear force called gluons. Each subatomic particle has one (1) or more of six (6) different constituents named quarks.12 The quarks are named flavors. Names of the flavors are: strange, charm, up, down, top and bottom. Quarks are thought to come from a fundamental composition and have not been positively identified but are believed to come from vibrating strings.13 Any substance composed of entirely one type of atom is an element, i.e., gold, lead, silver.